The present Comprehensive Scoping and Assessment Study is aimed at evaluating how smallholder farmers are coping with climate changes and how the Government of Mozambique is strategising its policies in order to increase agricultural productivity and strengthen the resilience of vulnerable smallholder farmers to the impact of climate change.
The specific objectives are to:
- Conduct comprehensive reviews of the existing CSA policy context in Mozambique;
- Analyze gaps in the existing policy frameworks;
- Identify relevant policy recommendations;
- Develop and share policy recommendations (briefs) in Mozambique.
The primary data was collected through interviews of 125 people in districts of Maputo, Sofala and Zambézia Provinces including Government and donor representatives, independent consultants and women and men farmers. Interviews were solicited with Ministry of Agriculture (MINAG) staff in Maputo including national directors of the Ministries of Agriculture, Environment, Planning and Development, and Home Affairs. At the Provincial level the research team conducted discussions with Directors and extension workers in two provinces namely Maputo and Zambézia.
The results of the study indicate that Mozambique is vulnerable to climate change (CC), which is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of the extreme weather events. The most vulnerable sectors to CC are identified as (i) agriculture, (ii) energy, (iii) transport infrastructure, notably roads, and (iv) coastal areas. Deforestation is a significant problem in the country, deriving mainly from fuel wood collection, shifting agriculture, forest fires, timber exports, and lack of plans for land use. Wood consumption for fuel is estimated to account for 250 times that consumed by logging operations.
Government and international non-government organizations in Mozambique are the major stakeholders involved in CSA activities. Most of the farmers' adaptation to new climate changes tend to be spontaneous and does not constitute a conscious response to climatic stimuli. Coping Strategies in Mozambique include expanding cultivation, reducing fallow, switching crops, engaging in wage employment, vegetal charcoal production, timber and brick production, temporary/permanent migration (to gain access to land or markets).
In Mozambique, in the context of CSA it is recommended the improvement of crop and livestock production through the use of appropriate technologies, use of improved crop varieties and livestock breeds that are tolerant to drought, and developing/implementing strategies for drought preparedness. There is a need to increase resilience of food production systems to erratic rains by promoting sustainable agricultural production of maize and vegetables in wetlands and along river valleys.