Agriculture and food systems stand at the nexus of several great challenges. Food insecurity and malnutrition remains pervasive, whilst demand for food will continue to increase in the coming decades. As a sector, agriculture (predominantly rain-fed agriculture) will be hit hardest by climate change, yet at the same time food systems contribute up to a third of greenhouse gas emissions and must therefore help seek solutions to reducing global warming (Vermeulen et al, 2012).
Climate change is already a reality. The Fifth Assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has shown that global climate change is already damaging crops and undermining food production capacity in much of the world, particularly in poorer countries (IPCC 2014). Climate change will affect food security, nutrition and well-being in several ways: