Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources Policy Analysis Network (FANRPAN) Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources Policy Analysis Network (FANRPAN)

Tanzania: Water and Sanitation Profile
US Agency for International Development (USAID)

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Sector overview

The government of Tanzania is effectively reforming its water supply and sanitation (WSS) institutions, devolving service delivery to local providers, incorporating commercial principles into service delivery models, and instituting cost recovery strategies. Donors are actively engaged through a sector-wide approach (SWA), and planned contributions to the sector by both donors and the government are sufficient to meet targets identified in Tanzania’s National Strategy for Growth and Poverty Reduction or MKUKUTA. The MKUKUTA sets operational goals and puts policy in a functional framework, which in the water sector is embodied in the National Water Sector Development Strategy (NWSDS) of 2005.

Despite these institutional and policy reforms, key factors constrain further development in Tanzania’s WSS sector. Some constraints are being addressed through current policy and implementation strategy reforms such as better sector monitoring and evaluation (M&E), donor coordination, and local service provider capacity building, but other challenges remain. Persisting constraints include allocation of resources to the district level including poor compensation for staff and low access to sanitation facilities. Increased support of regional secretariats (RSs) and district water authorities is key to mitigating the constraints. Since so much authority and responsibility has been devolved to newly created water authorities, a significant amount of capacity building is necessary to impart best management practices. Appropriate compensation for staff is also needed so that service providers can attract and retain more technically proficient personnel.

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